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Ankle and Foot

Collectively, the ankle and foot are critical structures to bipedal stance, balance, and locomotion. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial joint that marries the distal ends of the tibia and fibula to the talus; it is designed to bare weight and to absorb ground reaction forces with stance and ambulation. Depending on the source, at times the calcaneus and, therefore, the subtalar joint are akin to the ankle complex and assist with both balance and shock absorption.

In contrast, the foot is designed for dynamic movement, dexterity, versatility, and refinement of motor movements. The foot is divided into three sections: the hindfoot (Talus and Calcaneus), the midfoot (Cuboid, Navicular, and Cuneiforms), and the forefoot (Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Interphalangeal joints).
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While you navigate through these review modules, keep in mind that although technically separate regions of study in the lower extremity, the ankle and foot function very much as a single unit with the actions of one impacting the other. Further, take note of the high number of bones and extensive musculature list that includes muscle innervations and actions; pathology and special tests are also reviewed.
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