Welcome to the Shoulder module.
The shoulder is generally misinterpreted as a simple synovial ‘ball and socket’ type joint. However, this is a gross over simplification. We need to expand our thinking to the entire ‘shoulder girdle.’ This includes not only the scapulohumeral joint, but also the acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and scapulothoracic regions. These four regions collectively make up the shoulder girdle and are interdependent when considering pathology, functional movement, examination, and rehabilitation of the shoulder.
In this section, you will review the bones, soft tissues, and joint mechanics of the shoulder girdle, as well as common pathologies and clinical testing procedures you’ll require to be successful in both your exam and your career.
- Hawkins Test / Hawkins-Kennedy Impingement Test
- Neer Impingement Test
- O’Brien’s Test
- Speed’s Test / Speed’s Maneuver
- Sulcus Sign
- Yergason’s Test
- Posterior Shoulder Internal Impingement Test
- Clunk Test
- Adson's Test
- Wright (Hyperabduction) Test
- Roos Test
- Acromioclavicular (AC) Shear Test
- Shoulder External Rotation Lag Sign
- Empty Can (Supraspinatus) Test
- 1st Rib Spring Test
- Shoulder Apprehension Tests (Anterior and Posterior)
- Upper Limb Tension Tests
- Drop Arm Test