Welcome to the Ankle & Foot.
Collectively, the ankle and foot are critical structures to bipedal stance, balance, and locomotion. The ankle, or talocrural joint, is a synovial joint that marries the distal ends of the tibia and fibula to the talus; it is designed to bare weight and to absorb ground reaction forces with stance and ambulation. Depending on the source, at times the calcaneus, and therefore the subtalar joint is akin to the Ankle complex and assists with both the aspects of balance and shock absorption.
In contrast, the foot is designed for dynamic movement, dexterity, versatility, and refinement of motor movements. The foot is divided into 3 sections: the hindfoot (Talus and Calcaneus), the midfoot (Cuboid, Navicular, and Cuneiforms), and the forefoot (Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Interphalangeal joints).
While you navigate through these review modules, keep in mind that the ankle and foot, although technically separate regions of study in the lower extremity, function very much as a single unit with the actions of one impacting the other. Further, take note of the high number of bones and extensive musculature list that includes muscle innervations and actions; pathology and special tests are also reviewed.